|1997 Progress Report|
PROGRESS REPORT OF THE EOS IDS VOLCANOLOGY TEAM October 1997
- 1. Summary of Activities
- 2. Progress on EOS Algorithms
- 3. Plans for FY98
- 4. EOS Instrument Team Interactions
- 5. EOS Project Support
- 6. Community Outreach
- 7. Data Validation, Q/A and Data Distribution Issues
- 8. Publications
1. SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
This Progress Report presents a summary of the activities of the EOS Volcanology Interdisciplinary Science Team for FY97. With less than one year to go before the launch of AM-1, the Team has concentrated its efforts on the further development of algorithms that will study eruption plumes, surface flows, and volcanic gases. We call these algorithms "Data Products", and in previous years in these Progress Reports we have described the various contributions of each Team Member in their development. In this Report, we focus on the progress that has been made in each algorithm. We also document our plans for FY98, the interactions that we have had with EOS instrument teams, the support that we have provided to the EOS Project, our community outreach, and our efforts in data validation, Q/A, and data distribution. A budget for FY98 is also provided. Finally, we provide a listing of the 22 papers that were published by the Team in 1996, and 16 papers that have been published in 1997 or are currently in press. Several additional manuscripts are currently under review but are not listed here.
2.0 PROGRESS ON EOS ALGORITHMS2.1: Data Product #3263 "Eruption Cloud Particle Maps"
Bill Rose is working on a series of complex multispectral infrared retrievals for the sizes and masses of various types of particles in drifting volcanic clouds. He has completed a study of the El Chichon (1982) clouds using HIRS/2 and AVHRR data. As part of this effort, the Team is studying the best method for merging TOMS and AVHRR data, and combining these results with trajectory models. Our initial work has focused on (1) developing and refining our abilities to merge and analyze UV and IR data sets of volcanic clouds and (2) testing and defining the capabilities of the new TOMS SO2 processing algorithm (v.7). Individual studies have been conducted: a) Lascar 1993 volcanic clouds. b) SO2 and ash separation in the El Chichon cloud (Schneider et al., 1997). c) Detailed trajectory studies of the June 1992 Spurr eruption cloud (Shannon et al., 1997). These studies form an important component of our IDS investigation because we need the third dimension of the eruption cloud in order to improve mass retrievals, monitor fallout of silicate particles, and understand the dynamics of the cloud-atmosphere interactions in the first few days of the eruption. This work is therefore complemented by the efforts of Glaze and Wilson, who are working on our Data Product #3293 ("Plume Top Characteristics"). The latest FORTRAN code that we have developed for the RADIANNET model adds capability for variable channel wavelengths to support multiple instrument platforms, including MODIS. The IDL user interface has been recently upgraded and simplified to automate the determination of these and other parameters for a given instrument platform by accessing a database. We are continuing to investigate new approaches to improve the RADIANNET model, including:
(1) More realistic Mie theory computations for ash particulates;
(2) Atmospheric corrections to the 2-band method;
(3) Further improvements in the algorithm and IDL interface to make the method more accessible to nonexpert users.2.2 Data Product #3267 "Eruption Cloud Location and Ash Burden"
Bill Rose has been working on improving our understanding of how infrared remote sensing data can be used to identify the outline of volcanic eruption clouds and then retrieve the particle size, optical depths, and masses of silicates (Rose and Schneider, 1996).
In the current year, we have been focusing on the atmospheric conditions, which are very important to the successful application of the technique for tropical, water vapor enriched clouds (e.g., the 1994 eruption of Rabaul). This effort is advancing well, and we have assembled a valuable data set for Montserrat using GOES 8 data for high temporal resolution studies. We have outlined a new strategy for the cutoff and discrimination of the plume, and identified a formal method for atmospheric correction using the RADIANNET code.
A comprehensive study of the Mt. Ruapehu ash cloud (June, 1996) has been completed by Prata utilizing ATSR-2 and AVHRR data. The analysis extends the work of Wen and Rose to determine particle sizes, mass and cloud top height using multi-spectral satellite images. Cloud top height is determined by using the parallax formed between the nadir and forward views of the ATSR-2 instrument. A check on the heights was made by using the plume shadows observed in the visible channels of the AVHRR and from ground-based radar observations.
A reanalysis of the Rabaul plume of September 1993 has also been completed. Again ATSR data have been utilized. In this case evidence of ice in the cloud was detected using the 1.6 m data (particularly relevant as this is also a MODIS channel) which can easily distinguish between water and ice cloud. Cloud top heights were determined to be in excess of 20 km and therefore it is concluded that the cloud was stratospheric. It is also speculated that there was an SO2 plume (not detected by TOMS) overlying the ice cloud and this can be seen in Shuttle photographs.
Little work has been done with ADEOS due to data distribution problems, and ultimately to the loss of the spacecraft in early July, 1997. Efforts are being made to acquire data products from the existing acquisitions. Methodologies have been developed to utilize these data in ash cloud studies. This work will be adapted for analysis of MODIS data, taking advantage of similar channels in the infrared.2.3 Data Product #3266 "Lava Flow Area Change", #3269 "Volcano Topography" and #3272 "Volcano Deformation and Change"
Each of the main algorithms for these data products has been produced in a draft form, and Howard Zebker, Harold Garbeil and Pete Mouginis-Mark are continuing their development so as to be useful in the operational EOS system. Initially these algorithms were constructed to use data from the ERS-1 and -2 satellite sensors, and recently were modified to process data collected by the JERS-1 radar. We have processed two JERS-1 interferograms (four complex images) from data acquired over Hawaii through the University of Hawaii downlink system. This capability promises to allow us to begin deformation studies of the very active Kilauea volcanic area.
Additional data over Hawaii collected by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) were analyzed and resulted in two significant results: i) detailed mapping of active lava flows from Kilauea, and ii) an analysis of atmospheric propagation artifacts visible in radar interferograms. In the latter case we developed a theoretical model relating the artifacts to water vapor in the troposphere.
Recently we have begun to analyze deformation of the active Popocatepetl volcano near Mexico City. As yet we can only conclude that there was indeed several cm worth of deformation over a four month period in Spring 1997. These results will be refined with more comprehensive data in the coming months.2.4 Data Product #3281 "Volcanic SO2 - Low Spatial Resolution"
Work by the GSFC TOMS Volcano Team showed progress in four IDS areas; bringing the data from two new TOMS instruments on line, algorithm development, detection of pre-eruptive outgassing, and validation.2.4.1 TOMS Data Analysis
After an 18 month hiatus following the demise of Meteor-3 TOMS in December 1994, we began receiving TOMS data from two satellites in 1996. The long delayed TOMS Earth Probe satellite was launched in July 1996 into a lower altitude research orbit to test the effects of footprint area on sulfur dioxide and tropospheric ozone detection and to provide complementary data for ADEOS TOMS, which was launched in August 1996. Our display and analysis software was modified to subset and ingest data from these satellites. Wavelength changes in the new instruments made it necessary to modify the software and install new coefficients. The S/N ratio of these instruments is also improved by a doubling of the entrance aperture and an increase in the telemetry precision from 7 to 13 bits.
Earth Probe TOMS:
The EP TOMS instrument was configured for a 955 km orbit but flown at 500 km where the footprint size, 25 km, and swath width, 1330 km, was one-half of the Nimbus 7 TOMS sizes. The fourfold reduction in footprint area was expected to produce significant signals from smaller SO2 masses. However, contiguous coverage was no longer possible and detection of every eruption was no longer certain. We found that volcanoes were missed on one-third of the days due to inter-orbit gaps at low latitudes and that small emissions (subpixel) would be missed on half of the days due to inter-scan gaps at all latitudes.
The ADEOS TOMS instrument was configured for full contiguous global coverage from an 800 km orbit with 42 km footprints at nadir. The instrument began collecting data on 11 September 1996 and functioned flawlessly until failure of the satellite on June 30, 1997. Only one sizable eruption was found during its lifetime; i.e., Nyamuragira, which effusively erupted on 1-15 December, 1996. Clouds containing 100 Kton SO2 were observed. SO2 maps were put on the Web for each day of the eruption. SO2 maps were also generated and placed on the Web for the same eruption, as observed by EP TOMS.
Operational Data Analysis:
In late 1996 MOU's with NOAA and the FAA were implemented to move the TOMS volcanic hazards to an operational environment. Two demonstrations are in effect: Real-time EP TOMS data collection by NWS Anchorage began in May 1997. Three orbit segments are made available to air traffic and volcanic hazards analysts minutes after the satellite pass. Near real-time EP TOMS data are now processed twice daily at NOAA/NESDIS for global analyses of volcanic hazards at the Washington VAAC.2.4.2 Algorithm Development
Ash discrimination algorithm:
A new algorithm has been developed by Krotkov and Seftor to detect the presence of volcanic ash by its non-Rayleigh scattering characteristics. Two parameters, optical depth and effective particle radius, can be determined for an ash cloud. The TOMS ash clouds are coincident with AVHRR ash clouds in the three cases examined so far: El Chichon, Spurr, and Hudson. This algorithm generates a new type of data product for our Team, called an "Aerosol Index Map".
Sulfur dioxide algorithm:
An iterative algorithm has been developed by Krueger to remove errors due to non-geometric path effects. Both ozone and sulfur dioxide retrievals are accurate in a Rayleigh atmosphere. However, ash and aerosols produce errors that can be corrected if their properties are known.
The TOMS wavelengths were selected without regard for sulfur dioxide absorption. The Krueger - Kerr algorithm errors depends on the stability of the inverse matrix of absorption coefficients. Gurevich and Krueger determined sets of wavelengths for new instruments which have the least errors.2.4.3 Pre-eruptive SO2 Detection
Single pixels of elevated SO2 (3-6 times the standard deviation) were found in the EP TOMS data near Popocatepetl Volcano. The same pixels were not found in ADEOS data due to the larger footprint area. Schaefer examined the COSPEC observations and found elevated SO2 emissions related to the TOMS events. To confirm this evidence for detection of low SO2 levels the EP TOMS was put in a "stare" mode which pointed the scanner in a fixed angle which would pass near Popocatepetl. The standard deviation is reduced by about 4 in this mode. Significant SO2 peaks were found near COSPEC detections of SO2 plumes. A second method for detection of SO2 outgassing that has been developed is compositing of daily data. The monthly means show variations that reflect the varied activity of Popocatepetl.2.5 Data Product #3289 "Volcanic SO2 - High and Moderate Spatial Resolution"
Work on this algorithm by Vince Realmuto has included the publication of the SO2-mapping procedure in JGR-Solid Earth (Realmuto, 1997). The SO2-mapping and change detection procedures were ported to Windows NT, so that the SO2 mapper runs about 4 times faster on a PC (Pentium Pro 200 MHz processor) than on a SPARCstation 10 computer. A "misfit map" (goodness of fit between model and observation at each pixel) has been added to the output of SO2 mapper. An evaluation of the modified SO2 recovery algorithm is currently in progress.2.6 Data Product #3290 "Surface Thermal Alert"
The development of the MODIS alert code by Luke Flynn is now in its final pre-launch stages. Version V-2 of the algorithm, which is the at-launch version of the Thermal Alert algorithm, is currently passing through review at the MODIS Team Leader Computing Facility. The main changes to the algorithm reflect the fact the MODIS data will now be delivered in three packets within a single file. The three packets contain data at the 3 resolutions that MODIS collects data, namely, 250-m, 500-m, and 1-km spatial resolutions. Benefits of the changes include the resampling of the 250-m and 500-m data to 1-km resolution which means that if near-IR data become available in later MODIS launches that these data may then be used for hot spot analysis. The "Thermal Anomaly - Low Spatial Resolution" product (DPD #3292), scheduled as an after-launch product, may be much more robust than previously envisioned as the resampling and coregistration of MODIS channels will be an automated, standard product. This means that given acceptable data access, our Low Resolution Product could easily be automated also.
The obvious detraction of the new MODIS data format is that the added organizational structure requires additional processing time for the thermal alert algorithm. The Web interface has not been developed per se, but we have come a long way in determining what the interface will look like. Alerts will be initially displayed on a global map, with regional maps available to show increased spatial resolution for the most current images (i.e., less than 24-hours old). The user will be able to provide queries by volcano location (a pull-down menu or toolbar could have a number of volcanoes to choose from) or latitude/longitude. An additional toolbar will be added to provide 100-km, 250-km, or 500 km frames around the point of interest. User queries will also include the dates for which the data are required.
Two means of data display will be available which are a standard generated map showing the locations of hot spots for a given time period, and an on-the-fly generated MPEG movie showing the evolution of hot spots for the specified time interval. An MPEG movie for Kilauea using GOES data has been produced with the assistance of Andy Harris (a post-doc in Hawaii) and this has received favorable reviews from the Hawaii Volcano Observatory and other volcanologists. Using MODIS data, we can provide global coverage at 1-km spatial resolution and, thus, provide regional movies of eruptions and volcanic activity. A side benefit is that the movies will be very useful for studying seasonal hot spot patterns associated with forest fires, for example, and thus increase the utility of the EOS Volcanology Web site for a much broader user community.2.7 Data Product #3293 "Plume Top Characteristics"
Lori Glaze has made improvements to the photoclinometry part of the plume topography software package, to accommodate input of a variety of input file formats. The code has been generalized to work on more generic plume geometries. Development is underway of new software to determine plume top temperatures and produce color-density sliced images of the plumes and annotate the resulting images. This now runs end-to-end on AVHRR data in a variety of input file formats. We have also been working on how to input MODIS test data sets into the plume top topography software packages.
3.0 PLANS FOR FY983.1 Rose and Bluth (Mich. Tech. Univ.)
a) Improvement of the RADIANNET code (DPD #3267). This code currently exists as FORTRAN and as a widget-based IDL routine. It has been used in a modified form at Michicagan Tech Univ. The parts to be revised affect the tropical atmospheric effects which center on the water vapor content of the moist tropical lower troposphere. Work will be done in collaboration with Prata, and will be expanded to include MODIS spectral characteristics.
b) Validation of RADIANNET results from TOMS reflectivity. In collaboration with the TOMS Group's efforts led by Arlin Krueger, our Team has discovered that TOMS reflectivity can also be used as the basis of a radiative transfer model for volcanic ash in volcanic clouds.
c) Probably the most appropriate eruption to compare the plume analyses of Rose and Bluth to the plume-top topographic studies of Lori Glaze will be Mt. Spurr, as we have recently performed wind trajectory analyses to put some constraints on cloud geometry. This would provide a good test for the Team members as they would be approaching the problem from unique perspectives. Here Bluth is working on some wind trajectory experiments to refine our cloud geometries over the initially broad study.3.2 Zebker (Stanford Univ.) and Mouginis-Mark (Univ. Hawaii)3.2.1 Algorithm development
Our role is to analyze active and potentially active volcanoes using interferometric radar techniques as applied to data collected by existing sensors. A large part of this effort is to understand the distortions induced in the observed signatures due to atmospheric propagation and other interfering signals. These must be quantified and accounted for in the data interpretation. The following subtasks will be undertaken in FY98:
- 1. Refine and complete in greater detail the three above mentioned algorithms.
- 2. Produce the first automated implementation of the algorithms.
- 3. Implement verification experiments to establish the algorithm performance in each case.
- 4. Refine the code to improve performance as suggested by the verification experiments.3.2.2 Volcano investigations
The following subtasks are required in order to complete the scientific goals of the radar studies.
- 1. Obtain samples of interferometric data pairs over volcanic targets, particularly active volcanoes. Process these data into interferograms and correlation images.
- 2. Reduce interferograms to topographic maps and deformation maps. Compare, where possible, to existing topographic data for verification.
- 3. Using the two-pass deformation approach, remove the effects of topography to obtain surface deformation estimates. Compare to GPS and other in situ data where applicable.
- 4. Analyze the atmospheric effects as seen in the residuals from the above. Quantify the results in terms of atmospheric variability in pressure and water vapor.
- 5. Examine correlation images for estimation of mass eruption rates of active sites.3.3 Glaze (Proxemy Research, Inc.)
The objective is to have the plume top topography software ready to take MODIS data as input at the time of AM-1 launch, and produce plume top topography data products. This software will require IDL to run, and will be made available to the public. The plan for this year also includes the development of an archive for the data products on a public Web server, which will have pointers from the EOS Volcanology IDS Team Home Page.3.4 Crisp (JPL)
Continue main functional role of Deputy Team Leader, including providing Team with current information about data formats, Q/A, and software standards adopted by EOS Project. Continue to test and review the team's software packages.
Joy will also maintain and update the Team's Web site. She will build pointers to all of the Team's data products and "advertise" new products. An explanation of how the Team's products are interrelated will also be included, as well as how they can be used to study different types of eruptions.
Exploratory work will also be done in the context of sensors that will fly on PM-1 and CHEM. Joy will run the MODIS data sets through the SO2 alert previously developed for HIRS data, and find out how many false alerts and true alerts are generated per day versus an alert using the difference between the radiance measured for the channels at 8.55 and 11.0 m. This alert will be tested for at least one major eruption cloud (more, if possible) and several types of non-eruption data sets.
Radiative transfer simulations of eruption clouds will be continued for comparison to MODIS observations (later to be used with TES and AIRS). The modeling results will be used to infer the characteristics of ash and H2SO4 aerosols and the abundances of various volcanic gas species.
Joy will also provide input and ideas for Vince Realmuto's animation video (see below task of Realmuto).3.5 Pieri (JPL)
Will work to ensure that our IDS Team is familiar with the ASTER DAR process, and that the ASTER data are collected that are crucial for the algorithms that Vince Realmuto and Luke Flynn are developing (Data Products #3289 "Volcanic SO2 - High and Moderate Spatial Resolution" and Data Product #3291 "Thermal Anomaly - High Spatial Resolution"). These ASTER data will also support the research that Pieri, Glaze, Francis, Self and Rose are planning. Issues of how time-series data from ASTER and analog data sets (e.g., Landsat TM) can be incorporated into our investigations will also be studied.3.6 Krueger (GSFC)
- 1) Complete the ash and SO2 and ash algorithm development and bring Data Product #3281 ("Volcanic SO2 - Low Spatial Resolution") up to date;
- 2) Complete the analysis of validation campaign data;
- 3) Develop techniques for comparison of TOMS SO2 and ash retrievals with MODIS data and test with OCTS data;
- 4) Deliver ADEOS and EP TOMS volcanic products to the Goddard DAAC.3.7 Flynn (Univ. Hawaii)
Luke's FY98 objectives are very similar to those proposed for 1997: (1) submitting a document for publication detailing the process of the alert from the time the data are collected to the time when the data are placed on the EOS Volcanology IDS Web-site, (2) final development of the MODIS V-2 Surface Thermal Alert code, and (3) developing the on-the-fly user interface for the thermal alert files once they are processed through the Hawaii SCF. Given availability of additional time, the hope is to also develop the Low Resolution Thermal Product. The Low Resolution Product will contain 2 MODIS thermal images, which is different from the Surface Thermal Alert that will provide hot spot information. The main difference between the two is that the Low Resolution Product could show the location of clouds over a target which may obscure the hot spots.3.8 Realmuto (JPL)
Develop general interface to ingest EOS-HDF format ASTER and MODIS data, which will be completed prior to AM-1 launch.
Publish paper on change detection procedure.
Produce an information video describing the Volcanology Team's mission and science objectives, drawing on examples. This will be one of our primary outreach activities as the EOS Project gets close to AM-1 launch. At this stage, we envision that the effort will focus on studying a future Mauna Loa eruption using the following EOS-era sensors:
- Radar deformation of the surface due to magma intrusion along a rift zone (Zebker's radar interferograms).
- Detection of the thermal anomaly due to new lavas erupted on the surface (Flynn's thermal alarm, the high resolution analysis of the lava flow field).
- Analysis of the low-altitude study of SO2 release from the vent (Realmuto's ASTER algorithm).
- Measurement of the SO2 abundance in the stratosphere (Krueger's TOMS studies). In 1984, the Mauna Loa plume was detected by TOMS. This part of the video will include a link to the atmospheric chemistry/climate effects of the eruption.
4.0 EOS INSTRUMENT TEAM INTERACTIONS
The following is a collection of activities that we have sustained over the last year to remain in contact with the Instrument Teams on AM-1 and other relevant spacecraft.4.1 Joy Crisp and Vince Realmuto have met with Moshe Pniel about ASTER and their data archive plans. Joy Crisp has kept up to date on the Q/A (Quality Assurance) plans for ASTER via communications with Craig Leff.4.2 Dave Pieri is our liaison with U.S. ASTER Team regarding review and modifications to IDS Data Acquisition Requests (DARs) on behalf of the Volcanology IDS Team, including creation and implementation of a Volcano Activity Index (VAI) for over 400 volcanoes. On behalf of the Volcanology IDS Team, he has also performed liaison functions with the Japanese ASTER Science Team volcanology component, including coordination of the submittal of joint US-Japanese DARs.4.3 Pete Mouginis-Mark has remained in contact with Jim Garvin over the results from the SLA-01 (Shuttle Laser Altimeter) mission, and plans to develop ties with Ralph Dubai and VCL as this mission becomes better defined. Both data sets will be valuable for the interpretation of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) topographic data over volcanoes when this mission flies in 1999.4.4 Between November 1996 and March 1997, Luke Flynn worked extensively with Dale Noss of the ASTER Team to submit over 80 requests for different volcano targets as part of the initial ASTER Planning Strategy.4.5Luke Flynn attends some of the MODLAND (MODIS Land Discipline Group) and Landsat 7 Team meetings (he is a Landsat 7 Team member, and works closely with Chris Justice on developing MODIS algorithms). We also keep up-to-date with MODIS by reading the science team meeting notes and checking the Calibration Parameters Web page.
5.0 EOS PROJECT SUPPORT
The following activities have been undertaken by the EOS Volcanology IDS Team over the last year to support the broader EOS Project efforts.5.1 Pete Mouginis-Mark completed the volcanology component of Chapter 10, "Volcanoes, Aerosols, and Climate Change", for the EOS Science Implementation Plan, which has been on-line with the rest of the Plan since January 28, 1997 (http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/sci_plan/chapters.html).5.2 Pete Mouginis-Mark visited Hughes STX in January 1997 to discuss data scenarios related to the volcanology IDS Team.5.3 As part of the educational activities for EOS, Pete Mouginis-Mark reviewed (in March 1997) the educational CD-ROM prepared by Ricky Rood called "Monsoon."5.4 Pete Mouginis-Mark has met with Verne Kaupp (Chief Scientist at ASF) to guide the development of their DAR forms. Pete Mouginis-Mark has been in regular contact (1/hour to 1/month depending on the issues) with ASF regarding the operation of the DAAC for the benefit of the user community. He serves as the Chair of the ASF User Working Group, and over the last year has had several day-long meetings with Kaupp and other ASF staff to aid the development of a user-friendly DAAC.5.5 Howard Zebker has had numerous interactions with ASF and EDC DAACs with the specific objective of evaluating methods for placing our products into the EOS system so that they will be available to all interested scientists and other users.5.6 Joy Crisp and Harold Garbeil have been testing EOS-HDF software EOSView.
6.0 COMMUNITY OUTREACH
The EOS Volcanology IDS Team considers outreach to the broad community as one of the most important aspects of our investigation. This outreach not only includes the international volcanological community, but also to the lay-person and K-12 school students who might have an interest in volcanoes and NASA's Earth observation program. Here is a list of some of our main outreach activities over the last year.6.1 Joy Crisp has maintained the EOS Volcanology Web Site. To date, this Home Page has had over 90,000 hits, and since January 1997 it has had 34,000 hits. If one includes all of the different pages, we have had ~1,550,000 total hits, and ~635,000 hits this past year.6.2 Joy Crisp has answered many telephone and email questions related to volcanoes and remote sensing, sent from school kids and teachers finding the EOS Volcanology Web site. She also gave an interview to Kid's Wall Street News about the use of EOS instruments in the study of volcanoes.6.3 In preparation for our real-time Web pages with MODIS thermal alerts, Luke Flynn, Harold Garbeil and Andy Harris have implemented a real-time monitoring program of Kilauea volcano on the Univ. Hawaii SCF (Science Computing Facility) using GOES-9 data. This has been available on the Web since July 1997 at: http://www.pgd.hawaii.edu/current/goes/6.4 Bill Rose has been working with J.T. Young at the University of Wisconsin to place real-time weather satellite data of ten active volcanoes on the Web. There is now an automated web page which shows an updated (every half hour) GOES look at Montserrat and an animated loop: http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/volcano.html. The volcanological community has been polled by Bill Rose so that the 10 most interesting volcanoes are viewed each week on this web site.6.5 Lori Glaze spoke to JASON Project participants about volcanoes and remote sensing at the National Geographic building in Washington D.C. (May, 1997).6.6 Under direction from Arlin Krueger, Colin Seftor is undertaking a revision of the TOMS SO2 Web page (http://skye.gsfc.nasa.gov/) to eliminate redundancy with other volcano pages and to increase the information content based on a review by Michigan Tech. University.6.7 Bill Rose has led our Team's involvement in the development of a volcanic cloud hazard mitigation plan (working between National Weather Service (NWS)/NOAA, USGS, and FAA, with a focus on Alaska). We continue to work closely with AVO and NWS in Anchorage, which has been facilitated by the relocation (in April 1997) of Dave Schneider to Anchorage (Dave was a graduate student at Michigan Tech. Univ.). Collaborative work has also commenced with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO via Team member Fred Prata. http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/6.8 Pete Mouginis-Mark has organized a special session at the Fall 97 American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco (December 8-12, 1997) on "Remote Sensing of Active Volcanoes." Thirty-seven abstracts have been accepted, and we are planning on two oral sessions (12 talks per session) and one poster session (13 posters). This symposium is intended to showcase research using spaceborne and airborne observations of ongoing volcanic activity, and describe the availability of data sets and software that will enable new investigations to be conducted. It will alert the volcanological community to the excellent opportunities for new types of studies that EOS will permit. This special session will bring researchers from the remote sensing community into contact with field volcanologists who may be interested in collaborating on the interdisciplinary analysis of specific volcanic eruptions. 13 of the 24 talks and 2 of the 13 posters highlight the research of our IDS team, so it will provide excellent interactions (outreach and feedback) between the IDS team and other non-EOS investigators.6.9 Pete Mouginis-Mark has given interviews for USA Today, Science News and local newspapers about the use of satellites to study volcanic eruptions. Joy Crisp and Dave Pieri have also been interviewed for an article that appeared in Space News.6.10 Fred Prata and Steve Self convened a special Symposium of the IAMAS/IAPSO/IAVCEI general assembly in Melbourne July 1-9, 1997. The Symposium, titled "Volcanoes and Climate" attracted 16 speakers on topics ranging from GCM simulations of the forcing of climate by volcanoes, to tree ring evidence of volcano-induced climate change, to real-time radar monitoring of plume dynamics at a New Zealand volcano. The papers will be compiled into a special issue of the journal "Global and Planetary Change".6.11 At the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) meeting, January, 1997, a poster was presented by Lori Glaze containing descriptions and examples of data products planned for eruption plume top topography: "Using the MODIS instrument to determine plume top temperatures, topography, and altitude" (L.S. Glaze, L. Wilson, and S. Self).
7.0 DATA VALIDATION, Q/A AND DATA DISTRIBUTION ISSUES
To keep track of the data issues related to EOS data issues, we have participated in several Project-wide activities, as well as instigated our own within-Team plans for data archive and distribution. The following is a listing of these activities:7.1: A sulfur dioxide validation workshop was held at GSFC in April 1996 by Arlin Krueger to develop plans for coordinated ground measurements during a volcanic event. The lack of standardization of COSPEC instruments was addressed by a second Workshop that Arlin helped convene at Arizona State University in May 1997 where many of the world's COSPECs were intercalibrated. Several instruments were then brought to Popocatepetl for coincident measurements with Earth Probe TOMS as coordinated by Schaefer. Team members at Goddard Space Flight Center and Michigan Tech. Univ. are also concerned with the validation of the two band infrared AVHRR data sets using TOMS reflectivity data. We recognize that the development of an algorithm for silicate retrievals in volcanic clouds using this technique (Seftor et al., 1997) offers an important validation opportunity.7.2: Lori Glaze attended an EOS Q/A (Quality Assurance) Workshop (and gave a presentation on the Volcanology IDS Team's requirements and needs) and a Data System Working Group meeting on browse and metadata at Goddard (November, 1996).7.3: Lori Glaze attended the Metadata Workshop in April 1997 at Goddard to become closely involved in the development of Release B. Our objectives were to find out about current status of Q/A metadata current plans for format, archiving and distribution of MODIS L1B data gather information related to the new role of metadata in EOSDIS" and talk with MODIS people about getting additional MODIS test data sets.7.4: Joy Crisp has tested and reviewed Lori Glaze's software packages for plume topography and plume temperature and Vince Realmuto's software for surface temperature, SO2 retrieval, and temperature change. Joy also built a Web archive example for Lori Glaze's products and gathered ideas for different styles of archiving.7.5: We maintain both a public and Team-internal Web sites. These pages have updated summaries for Data Product Documents; added ASTER, MODIS, EOSView, HDF-EOS, and metadata documents; and added links to more educational volcanology sites.7.6: Internal to our own Team, we held an Algorithm Developers' meeting at JPL June 3-4, 1997. Topics included data Q/A and validation, data formats, status of DAACs, archiving needs, web sites, and data visualization.7.7: We have been in regular contact with Saud Amer at EDC as they try to accommodate IDS data products. Pete Mouginis-Mark completed an extensive user survey for EDC on their current abilities to provide data of value to a volcanologist. It now appears as if their funding priorities will not allow the archiving of IDS products at EDC, and so we are taking steps to ensure that each data product is maintained at the producer's site, most likely on a Web archive. The issue of long-term preservation of the products is therefore questionable beyond our period of funding, but via our Web site we are at least providing the background descriptions of the algorithms used to compute these products.7.8: We have developed information sheets for news reporters to prepare for interviews.
Many of the following publications were produced under joint funding between our EOS IDS investigation and other NASA research programs. These other programs include the SIR-C/X-SAR Project, the Topography Program, the ADRO (Application Development and Research Opportunity) Radar Investigators Program, and the Geology and Natural Hazards Program. Each paper listed here has significant relevance to our EOS investigation. 22 papers were published by the Team in 1996, and 16 have either been published in 1997 or are in press. Several additional manuscripts are currently under review but are not listed here.
- Abrams M, R Bianchi, and DC Pieri (1996) Revised mapping of lava flows on Mt. Etna, Sicily, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 62: 1353-1359. (Winner of the 1996 Autometrics Year's Best Paper Award of the Society for Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing).
- Bogolio, MP, MF Buongiorno, S Salvi, S Teggi, S Pugnahi, MJ Abrams, DC Pieri, VJ Realmuto, and T Caltabiano (1996) Ground measurements of physical parameters at Vulcano island and Mount Etna in support of the MIVIS remote sensing campaign "Sicilia 94," Isituto Nazionale di Geofisica, publication no. 577, Rome, Italy, 67pp.
- Delene DJ, WI Rose, and NC Grody (1996) Remote sensing of volcanic clouds using special sensor microwave imager data, J. Geophys. Res., 101: 11579 - 11588.
- Garratt JR and AJ Prata (1996a) Surface radiation budget: Scaling up from local observations, in "Scaling Up in Hydrology using Remote Sensing," JB Stewart (ed.), pp. 77-91.
- Garratt JR and AJ Prata (1996b) Downwelling longwave fluxes at continental surfaces- A comparison of observations with GCM simulations and implications for the global land surface radiation budget, J. Climate, 9: 646-655.
- Harris DM and WI Rose (1996) Dynamics of carbon dioxide emissions, crystallization and magma ascent: Hypotheses, theory and applications to volcano monitoring at Mt. St. Helens, Bull. Volcanol., 58: 163-174.
- Harris A, MF Buongiorno, DC Pieri, RA Rothery, and N Stevens (1996) Mount Etna: the view from above, in "Mt. Etna, 15 Years On", PJ Gravestock and WJ McGuire (eds.) Proceedings of the C&GCHE Volcanic Research Centre Etna Conference, sponsored by the Royal Society, The Royal Academy of Engineers, the UKIDNDR, Reprographics, Cheltenham, UK, 68pp.
- Holasek RE, S Self, and AW Woods (1996) Satellite observations and interpretation of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption plumes, J. Geophys. Res., 101: 27635-27655.
- Holasek RE, AW Woods, and S Self (1996) Experiments on gas-ash separation processes in volcanic umbrella clouds, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 70: 169-181.
- Krueger, AJ, CC Schnetzler, and LS Walter (1996) The December 1981 eruption of Nyamuragira Volcano (Zaire) and the origin of the "mystery cloud" of early 1982, J. Geophys. Res., 101: 15191-15196.
- Mouginis-Mark PJ, SK Rowland, and H Garbeil (1996) Slope of western Galapagos volcanoes from airborne interferometric radar, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23: 3767-3770.
- Pieri DC (1996) Monitoring Volcanism and Transient Processes with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Proceedings SPIE International Symposium on Optical Science, Engineering, and Instrumentation, Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, MS Scholl; BF Andresen (eds.), 2817: 132-142.
- Prata AJ (1996) A new longwave formula for estimating downward clear-sky radiation at the surface, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 122: 1127-1151.
- Rose WI and DJ Schneider (1996) Satellite images offer aircraft protection form volcanic ash clouds, EOS Trans. AGU, 77: 529 and 532.
- Rosen PA, S Hensley, HA Zebker, FH Webb, and EJ Fielding (1996) Surface deformation and coherence measurements of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, from SIR-C radar interferometry. J. Geophys. Res., 101: 23,109 - 23,125.
- Rowland SK (1996) Slopes, lava flow volumes, and vent distributions on Volcan Fernandina, Galapagos Islands, J. Geophys. Res., 101: 27657 - 27672.
- Self S, J-X Zhao, RE Holasek, RC Torres, and AJ King (1996) The atmospheric impact of the Mount Pinatubo eruption., in Fire and Mud: Eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, CG Newhall and RS Punongbayan (eds.), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Quezon City, and University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp. 1089-1115.
- Self S and King AJ (1996) Petrology and sulfur and chlorine emissions of the 1963 eruption of Gunun-Agung, Bali, Indonesia, Bull. Volcanol., 58: 263-285.
- Thordarson Th and S Self (1996) Sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine degassing and atmospheric loading by the Roza eruption, Columbia River Basalt Group, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 74: 49-74.
- Thordarson Th, S Self, N Oskarsson, and T Hulsebosch (1996) Sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine degassing and atmospheric loading by the 1783-84 AD Laki eruption. Bull. Volcanol., 58: 205-225.
- Torres, RC, S Self, and M Martinez (1996) Secondary pyroclastic flows from the 15 June 1991 ignimbrite of Mount Pinatubo, in Fire and Mud: Eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, CG Newhall and RS Punongbayan (eds.), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Quezon City, and University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp. 665-678.
- Zebker HA, PA Rosen PA, S Hensley, and P Mouginis-Mark (1996) Analysis of active lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, using SIR-C radar correlation measurements, Geology, 24: 495-498.
Publications in 1997 and Papers in press
- Bluth GJS, WI Rose, IE Sprod, and AJ Krueger (in press) Stratospheric loading from explosive volcanic eruptions, J. Geology.
- Bogliolo MP, MF Buongiorno, T Caltabiano, S Salvi, S Teggi, MJ Abrams, DC Pieri, and VJ Realmuto (in press) Use of remote sensing data for estimates of physical-chemical parameters in volcanic areas, Acta Vulcanologica.
- Garratt JR, AJ Prata, L Rotstayn, B Macavaney, and S Cusack (in press) The surface radiation budget over oceans and continents, J. Climate.
- Glaze LS, SM Baloga, and L Wilson (1997) Transport of atmospheric water vapor by volcanic eruption columns, J. Geophys. Res., 102: 6099-6108.
- Gurevich GS and AJ Krueger (in press) Optimization of TOMS wavelength channels for ozone and sulfur dioxide retrievals, Geophys. Res. Lett.
- Krotkov NA, AJ Krueger, and PK Bhartia (in press) Ultraviolet optical model of volcanic clouds for remote sensing of ash and sulfur dioxide, J. Geophys. Res.
- MacKay ME and PJ Mouginis-Mark (1997) The effect of varying acquisition parameters on the interpretation of SIR-C radar data - the Virunga volcanic chain, Remote Sens. Environ., 59: 321-336.
- Pieri DC, AP Khrenov, TP Miller, SE Zharinov, V Realmuto, M Abrams, LS Glaze, AB Kahle, V Drozhnin, V Divgalo, V Kirianov, E Abbott, and S Chernobieff (1997) Joint Effort Results in First TIMS Survey of Kamchatka Volcanoes, EOS Trans. AGU, 78(12): 125 and 128.
- Prata AJ (in press) Land surface temperature from the AVHRR: A comment, J. Geophys. Res.
- Prata AJ and Turner PJ (1997). Cloud-top height determination using ATSR data, Rem. Sens. Environ. 59: 1 - 13.
- Realmuto VJ, AJ Sutton, and T Elias (1997) Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of sulfur dioxide plumes - a case study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res., 102: 15057-15072.
- Schaefer SJ, JB Kerr, MM Milln, VJ Realmuto, AJ Krueger, NA Krotkov, C Seftor, and IE Sprod (1997) Geophysicists unite to validate volcanic SO2 measurements, Eos Trans. AGU, 78: 217 and 223.
- Schnetzler CC, GJS Bluth, AJ Krueger, and LS Walter (in press) A proposed volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI), J. Geophys. Res.
- Seftor CJ, NC Hsu, JR Herman, PK Bhartia, O Torres, WI Rose, DJ Schneider, and N Krotkov (1997) Detection of volcanic ash clouds from Nimbus-7/TOMS reflectivity data, J. Geophys. Res., 102: 16749-16759.
- Self S, MR Rampino, J Zhao, and MG Katz (1997) Volcanic aerosol perturbations and strong El-Nino events - No general correlation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24: 1247-1250.
- Zebker HA, PA Rosen, and S Hensley (1997) Atmospheric effects in interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation and topographic maps, J. Geophys. Res., 102: 7547-7563.