EOS Volcanology Slide Set #1 Hazards, Lava Flows, and Education
HAZARDS SLIDE #16 (128K)
In the 1990's, there will be a major effort by the international
volcanology community to study ten very hazardous volcanoes around the world. These are the
"Decade Volcanoes," which include the ones shown here. Santa María, Guatemala
(Slides #17-19), will be the focus of the NASA Geology Program and EOS Volcanology Team's
SLIDE #17 (138K)
Santa María volcano, Guatemala, will be the focus of a series of
mapping, thermal, and topographic studies to be conducted by the Geology Program and EOS
Volcanology Team investigators. Here we see an eruption of the volcano in the late 1980's,
showing that dangerous pyroclastic flows are generated close to many villagers. Photo by Bill
Rose, Michigan Technological University.
SLIDE #18 (138K)
Air photo of Santa María volcano, Guatemala, showing many of the
valleys that serve to funnel mud flows down to the lower slopes. We hope to use satellite and
aircraft data to generate topographic maps of the volcano to help identify the hazard zones around
the volcano. Photo by Bill Rose, Michigan Technological University.
SLIDE #19 (126K)
One of the objectives of the NASA studies of volcanoes will be to learn more
about eruption plume growth through the analysis of the dynamics and temperature distribution of
plumes from Santa María volcano. There is an active lava dome (the Santiaguito dome) that
frequently generates plumes such as the one seen here. These plumes are ideal test cases for
comparing numerical models with real data because they are predictable and are generally quite
small. Photo by Bill Rose, Michigan Technological University.
SLIDE #20 (127K)
Mudflows from Pinatubo often inundate and bury nearby villages. These kids
are standing on the roof of a recently buried house over twenty kilometers from the volcano. Photo
by Ronnie Torres, University of Hawaii.
LAVA FLOWS SLIDE #21 (111K)
Kilauea volcano is an ideal volcano to develop methods for the analysis of
basaltic volcanoes because of the relatively predictable and safe eruptions. Kilauea has erupted
almost continuously for more than a decade (1983 to the present), so that we can study the
eruptions any time we want. Here we see a phase (number 32) of activity of the Pu`u O`o cone in
1984. Notice the helicopter in front of the eruption plume for scale! Photo by Scott Rowland,
University of Hawaii.
SLIDE #22 (133K)
Basaltic eruptions inject large quantities of sulfur dioxide into the
atmosphere (see also Slide #23). Indeed, sustained eruptions, such as the one of Kilauea, can
represent severe health hazards because local people are subjected to very poor air quality for
years on end. Here we see the 300 meter high fire fountain associated with the Phase 34 eruption
in 1984. Photo by Pete Mouginis-Mark, University of Hawaii.
SLIDE #23 (164K)
This is a nice view of an a`a lava flow, about a meter thick, on the flanks
of Kilauea volcano. Photo by Scott Rowland, University of Hawaii.
SLIDE #24 (152K)
Lava flows from the Kupaianaha vent of Kilauea destroyed over 80 homes
between 1989 and 1990. Many cars, such as the one shown here, were also lost, adding to the
millions of dollars of damage caused by this continuing eruption. Photo by Pete Mouginis-Mark,
University of Hawaii.
SLIDE #25 (93K)
More giant steam clouds created at the coast of the Big Island of Hawaii as
the lava flows from Kilauea volcano enter the sea. Photo by Pete Mouginis-Mark, University of
SLIDE #26 (112K)
Lava flows from Pu`u O`o also cause a lot of air pollution when they enter
the ocean. For more than three years, giant steam plumes have been created at the ocean entry
points. Photo by Pete Mouginis-Mark, University of Hawaii.
SLIDE #27 (90K)
Down wind from the Pu`u O`o vent, the air pollution is so great that often
the setting sun can be masked by the sulfur dioxide plume. Here we see a fine example of the plume
as it drifts over the flanks of Kilauea. Photo by Pete Mouginis-Mark, University of Hawaii.
TOPOGRAPHY SLIDE #28 (111K)
The TOPSAR data for Vesuvius can be
used to measure the cross-sectional shape of valleys on the flanks of the volcano. The locations
of a few of the representative profiles are shown in yellow. The numbers refer to the specific
profiles shown in Slide #29.
SLIDE #29 (96K)
Cross-sectional profiles of a single valley on the flanks of Mt. Vesuvius, as
determined from the TOPSAR data. Numbers of profiles are the same as those shown in Slide
EDUCATION SLIDE #30 (175K)
Educating school teachers as to the value of volcano studies is an important
component of the NASA volcanology effort. The Hawaii group has already conducted several
teachers' workshops and field trips to Kilauea volcano, showing teachers how to use Landsat
and aircraft data sets in their classes. Here we see graduate student Michelle Tatsumura
describing the different uses of AIRSAR and SPOT data of the volcano. Photo by Peter
SLIDE #31 (123K)
Group photograph of the teachers that participated in our 1992 Kilauea
volcano field trip. Photo by Hawaii's "Future Flight" program.