EOS Volcanology Acronyms List
EOSDIS Core System Project Acronyms List:
http://dmserver.gsfc.nasa.gov/ecsdev/gui/html/acronym_finder. (External Site)
AIRS: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder
EOS instrument, planned for the PM-1 satellite platform (launch in 2000). An array grating
spectrometer for measuring upward radiance at wavelengths between 0.4 to 1.0, 3.74 to 4.61, 6.20
to 8.22, and 8.8 to 15.4 micrometers, at a spectral resolution (lambda / delta lambda) of 1200 and
a spatial resolution of 13.5 km at nadir.
- AIRS Project
- Aumann, H.H. and R.J. Pagano, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on the Earth Observing System,
Optical Engineering, 33: 776-784, 1994.
- Strow, L.L., The measurement of global carbon monoxide using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder
(AIRS), in Chedin, A., M.T. Chahine, and N.A. Scott, editors, High spectral resolution infrared
remote sensing for Earth's weather and climate studies, Springer-Verlag, NY, pp. 351-362,
- Susskind, J., M.T. Chahine, and J. Joiner, Determination of temperature and moisture profiles
in a cloudy atmosphere using AIRS/AMSU, in Chedin, A., M.T. Chahine, and N.A. Scott, editors, High
spectral resolution infrared remote sensing for Earth's weather and climate studies,
Springer-Verlag, NY, pp. 149-161, 1993.
ASAR: Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar
An advanced synthetic aperture radar has been selected as the payload for the Envisat-1
payload, which has a planned launch in 2000. This C-band (5.6 cm wavelength) radar represents the
next evolutionary step from ERS-2, and will have a variety of swath widths, including a wide swath
mode that has a 100 m pixel size and 405 km swath. The radar will have dual polarization (VV like
ERS-1 and ERS-2, and a new HH polarization capability). Also new for a European radar, there will
be a variable incidence angle, from 15 to 45 degrees. Envisat's orbit has been selected as a 98
degree inclination orbit at 800 km altitude, which provides 35-day exact repeat coverage (i.e.,
identical to ERS-1 and ERS-2). The time of equatorial crossing for Envisat is 10:00 a.m. on the
descending pass, which is comparable to the 10:30 a.m. equatorial crossing for the EOS AM
- ASAR Instrument
- Karnevi, S., E. Dean, D.J.Q. Carter and S.S. Hartley, Envisat's Advanced Synthetic Aperture
Radar: ASAR, ESA Bulletin, 76: 30-35, 1993.
ASTER: Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection
EOS instrument, planned for the AM-1 platform (launch in 1998). Imaging radiometer providing
high spatial resolution images of the Earth's surface and clouds using 14 multispectral bands from
visible through thermal infrared wavelengths.
- ASTER Project
- Fujisada, H., ASTER Level-1 data processing algorithm, 1998, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote
Sensing, 36: 1101-1112, 1998.
- Gillespie, A., S. R. Okugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, A temperature
and emissivity separation algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection
Radiometer (ASTER) Images, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 36: 1113-1126, 1998.
- Welch, R., T. Jordan, H. Lang, and H. Murakami, ASTER as a source for topographic data in the
late 1990's, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 36: 1038-1289, 1998.
- Yamaguchi, Y., A.B. Kahle, H. Tsu, T. Kawakami, and M. Pniel, Overview of Advanced Spaceborne
Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36:
AVHRR: Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer
NOAA instrument, flown on NOAA satellites since 1978. Five spectral channels usually located at
0.58-0.68, 0.72-1.1, 3.55-3.93, 10.3-11.3, and 11.5-12.5 micrometers. Instantaneous field of view
of 1 km at nadir, up to 7 km off nadir.
- AVHRR Guide (Eros Data Center
- AVHRR (NOAA Polar Orbiter
Data User's Guide)
- AVHRR/3 (NOAA KLM User's
- Harris, A.J.L., L.P. Flynn, L. Keszthelyi, P.J. Mouginis-Mark, S.K. Rowland, and J.A. Resing,
Calculation of lava effusion rates from Landsat TM data, Bull. Volcanol., 60: 52-71, 1998.
- Holasek, R.E. and W.I. Rose, Anatomy of 1986 Augustine volcano eruptions as recorded by
multispectral image processing of digital AVHRR weather satellite data, Bull. Volcanol., 53:
DEM: Digital elevation model
Topography in digital format.
- Digital Elevation Data Catalog
- US Geological Survey Digital Elevation
- Burke, K. and T. Dixon, Topographic Science Working Group report to the Land Processes Branch,
Earth Science and Applications Division, NASA Headquarters: Lunar and Planetary Institute,
Houston, TX, 64 pp., 1988.
- Mouginis-Mark, P.J., S.K. Rowland, H. Garbeil, Slopes of western Galapagos volcanoes from
airborne interferometric radar, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23: 3767-3770, 1996.
- Wolf, M. and D. Wingham, The status of the world's public-domain digital topography of the
land and ice, Geophysical Research Letters, 19: 2325-2328, 1992.
EOS: Earth Observing System
A series of polar-orbiting and low-inclination satellites for global observations of the land
surface, biosphere, solid earth, atmosphere, and oceans. EOS is a NASA mission planned to provide
systematic and continuous observations of the Earth for a minimum of 15 years.
- EOS Project Science Office
- Tilford, S.G., G. Asrar, and P.W. Backlund, Mission to planet earth, Global Change and Space
Observations, 14: 5-9, 1993.
EOSP: Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter
EOS instrument, planned for the AM-2 and AM-3 satellite platforms (launches in 2003 and 2008).
Cross track scanning polarimeter that globally maps radiance and linear polarization of reflected
and scattered sunlight for 12 spectral bands in the wavelength range 0.41 to 2.25 micrometers.
Instrument scans from limb to limb (+/- 56 degrees) in the cross-track or along-track direction.
Spatial resolution is 10 km at nadir. Provides global aerosol distribution and cloud properties
such as optical thickness and phase.
Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite-1
Data from the first European remote sensing satellite instrument ERS-1 have been archived since
7 September 1991, and operations went into stand-by mode in June 1996. An almost identical
satellite instrument ERS-2 began collecting data October 1995. ERS-1 and ERS-2 include an imaging
radar system designed primarily for oceanography and sea ice investigations. The radar operates at
C-band (5.6 cm wavelength), has VV polarization, and has a fixed incidence angle (23 degrees).
Spacecraft provides a swath width of 100 km, but it does not have a tape recorder, so can only
transmit data to ground stations in direct line-of-sight.
- ERS-1 and ERS-2 information at the Alaska
- Francis, R. et al., The ERS-1 spacecraft and its payload, ESA Bulletin, No. 65: 27-48,
GLAS: Geoscience Laser Altimeter System
EOS instrument, planned for the ICESat-1 platform (launch in 2001). Nadir-pointed laser
altimeter that can measure cloud heights and aerosol vertical structure. Uses Nd:YAG laser with
1.064 and 0.532 micrometer output.
- GLAS 1993 team meeting
- Cohen, S., J. Degnan, J. Bufton, J. Garvin, and J. Abshire, The Geoscience Laser
Altimetry/Ranging System, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., GE-25, 581-592, 1987.
GMS: Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
This Japanese weather satellite carries a VISSR instrument (Visible and Infrared Spin Scan
Radiometer) to acquire images in the visible (0.5-0.75 micrometers) and infrared (10.5-12.5
micrometers). At nadir, the spatial resolution is 1.25 km in the visible and 5 km in the infrared.
GMS is part of Japan's Earth Observation Satellites Program. The first GMS was launched in 1977.
The currently operating instrument, GMS-5, was launched in 1995.
- Haruyama, Y., Progress of Japan Earth Observation Satellites, Advances in Space Research, 14:
- Tanaka, T., Earth Observing System of NASDA, Global and Planetary Change, 90: 307-315,
GOES: Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
NOAA weather satellites (GOES-EAST and GOES-WEST) which use the VISSR instrument (Visible and
Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer) to acquire images in the visible (0.54-0.7 micrometers) and
infrared (10.5-12.6 micrometers). At nadir, the spatial resolution is 0.9 km in the visible and
7.4 km in the infrared. GOES instruments have been flown since 1974.
- GOES Project Science
- GOES Volcano Watch
- Johnson, D.B., P. Flament and R.L. Bernstein, High-resolution satellite imagery for mesoscale
meteorological studies, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 75: 5-33, 1994.
GPS: Global Positioning System
HIRS, HIRS/2, and HIRS/3: High-Resolution Infrared Sounder
A NOAA instrument which has flown on NOAA satellites since 1978. Instrument has 19 channels
between 3 and 15 micrometers, and 1 channel at 0.7 micrometers wavelength. Spatial resolution is
17 km at nadir to 58 km at 55 degrees off nadir. HIRS/3 is in orbit on the NOAA-K platform, but is
not yet operational.
- HIRS/2 Data (NOAA Polar
Orbiter Data User's Guide)
- HIRS/3 (NOAA KLM User's
- Susskind, J., J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, and M.T. Chahine, Remote sensing of weather and
climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N, Jour. Geophys. Res., 89: 4677-4697, 1984.
- Susskind, J., D. Reuter, and M.T. Chahine, Cloud fields retrieved from analysis of HIRS2/MSU
sounding data, Jour. Geophys. Res., 92: 4035-4050, 1987.
JERS-1: Japanese Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite-1.
The first Japanese imaging radar, which is flown in conjunction with the OPtical Sensor (OPS).
JERS-1 became operational 20 May 1992. The radar has a fixed incidence angle (35 degrees) which
was selected for land studies, specifically geology and mineral exploration. It is an L-band (24
cm wavelength) radar with HH polarization. The spacecraft has a tape recorder, so that data can be
collected for any part of the world except poleward of 81.5 degrees.
MISR: Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer
EOS instrument, planned for the AM-1 satellite platform (launch in 1998). Provides
top-of-atmosphere, cloud, and surface angular reflectance functions. Nine CCD cameras fixed at
nine viewing angles out to +/- 70 degrees forward and aft of nadir, including nadir, in four
spectral bands centered at 0.443, 0.555, 0.67, and 0.865 micrometers.
- MISR Project
- Diner, D.J. et al., MISR: A Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer for geophysical and
climatological research from EOS, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 27: 200-214, 1989.
- Diner, D.J., et al., A Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer for terrestrial remote sensing
from the Earth Observing System, International Jour. Imaging Systems and Tech., 3: 92-107,
- Diner, D.J., J.C. Beckert, T.H. Reilly, C.J. Bruegge, J.E. Conel, R.A. Kahn, J.V. Martonchik,
T.P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S.A.W. Gerstl, H.R. Gordon, J.-P. Muller, R.B. Myneni, P.J. Sellers, B.
Pinty, and M.M. Verstraete, Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description
and experiment overview, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 36: 1072-1087, 1998.
- Jovanovic, V.M., M.M. Smyth, J. Zong, R. Ando, and G.W. Bothwell, MISR Photogrammetric data
reduction for geophysical retrievals, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 36: 1290-1301,
- Martonchik, J.V., D.J. Diner, B. Pinty, M.M. Verstraete, R.B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, and H.R.
Gordon, Determination of land and ocean reflective radiative, and biophysical properties using
multiangle imaging, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 36: 1266-1281, 1998.
MLS: Microwave Limb Scanner
EOS instrument, planned for the CHEM satellite platform (launch in 2002). Passive radiationally
cooled microwave limb-sounding radiometer/spectrometer, with spectral bands centered at 215, 440,
and 640 GHz and 2.5 THz, with a spectral resolution of 1 MHz. A similar instrument was flown as
part of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) mission.
- EOS CHEM platform
- MLS Project
- Read, W.G., L. Froidevaux, and J. Waters, Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurement of SO2 from
Mt. Pinatubo volcano, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20: 1299-1302, 1993.
- Waters, J.W., Submillimeter wavelength heterodyne spectroscopy and remote sensing of Earth's
Upper Atmosphere, Proc. IEEE: Special Issue on Terahertz Technology, 1992.
- Waters, J.W., Microwave limb sounding, chapter 8 in Atmospheric Remote Sensing by Microwave
Radiometry, M. Janssen editor, Wiley and Sons, 1992.
- Waters, J.W., Atmospheric measurements by the MLS experiments: Results from UARS and plans for
the future, Adv. Space Res., 21: 1363-1372, 1998.
MODIS: Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
EOS instrument planned for the AM-1 and PM-1 platforms (launches in 1998 and 2000). Imaging
radiometer with 36 discrete bands between 0.4 and 15 micrometers. At nadir, spatial resolution is
250 m (for two bands), 500 m (5 bands), or 1 km (29 bands).
- MODIS Project
- Barnes, W.L., T.S. Pagano, and V.V. Salomonson, Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate
Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36:
- Justice, C.O., E. Vermote, J.R.G. Townshend, R. Defries, D.P. Roy, D.K. Hall, V.V. Salomonson,
J.L. Privette, G. Riggs, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, R.B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, S.W. Running, R.R.
Nemani, Z. Wan, A.R. Huete, W. van Leeuwen, R.E. Wolfe, L. Giglio, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, and
M.J. Barnsley, The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): Land remote sensing for
global change research, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36: 1228-1249, 1998.
- King, M.D., Y.J. Kaufman, W.P. Menzel, and D. Tanre, Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and
water vapor properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), IEEE Trans.
Geosci. Remote Sens., 30: 2-27, 1992.
- Masuoka, E., A. Fleig, R.E. Wolfe, and F. Patt, Key characteristics of MODIS data products,
IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36: 1313-1323, 1998.
- Salomonson, V.V., and D.L. Toll, The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir (MODIS-N)
facility instrument, Advances in Space Research, 11: 231-236, 1991.
- Wolfe, R.E., D.P. Roy, and E. Vermote, MODIS land data storage, gridding, and compositing
methodology: Level 2 grid, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36: 1324-1338, 1998.
NOAA: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
RADARSAT: Radar Satellite
A Canadian C-band (5.6 cm wavelength) imaging radar with HH polarization, which has a variable
incidence angle from 20 to 50 degrees. Swath width is selectable (from about 100 km at 30 meter
resolution to about 500 km at about 100 meter resolution). Data collection from this instrument
began June 1996.
SAGE III: Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III
Two nearly identical EOS instruments, one planned for Meteor-3M to be launched in 1999 and the
second as an attached payload for the 51.6 degrees-inclined Space Station. Limb-scanning grating
spectrometer with 1 km vertical resolution. Will be used to retrieve atmospheric profiles of
aerosols, O3, H2O, NO2, NO3, OClO, O2, temperature, and pressure. Previous versions of SAGE have
been flown on satellites; SAGE I (4-channel sun photometer) was launched 2/79 and collected data
until 11/81, SAGE II (7-channel solar photometer) was launched 10/84.
- SAGE III Project
- McCormick, M.P. and R.E. Veiga, SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 19: 155-158, 1992.
- Yue, G.K., M.P. McCormick, and E.W. Chiou, Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the
Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II: Decay of the El Chichon and Ruiz volcanic
perturbations, Jour. Geophys. Res., 96: 5209-5219, 1992.
SAR: Synthetic Aperture Radar
Side-looking imaging radar system that uses the Doppler effect to sharpen the effective
resolution in the cross-track direction.
- SAR References
- Elachi, C., Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing, John Wiley, NY, pp.
SIR-C: Shuttle Imaging Radar-C
Space Shuttle radar instrument which was flown on STS-59 in April 9-20, 1994, and on STS-68
September 30-October 11, 1994. The instrument is a cooperative experiment between NASA, the German
Space Agency DARA, and the Italian Space Agency (ASI).The orbital inclination on the first flight
was 57 degrees, providing coverage of volcanoes as far north as Central Kamchatka. About 20% of
the Earth's land surface was imaged during the first flight of the radar. The SIR-C operates at
L-band (23.5-cm wavelength) and C-band (5.8 cm), with HH, HV, VH, and VV polarization modes. The
magnitude and phase information is also retained, so that the entire Stokes matrix information can
be obtained. The SIR-C antenna is electronically steerable, and has the capability to view the
Earth at incidence angles between 18 - 58 degrees. Resolution is typically 30 x 30 m on the
- SIR-C/X-SAR Images
- Evans, D.L. et al., The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band synthetic aperture radar
(SIR-C/X-SAR) mission. EOS Trans. AGU, 74(13): 145-158, 1993.
TES: Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer
EOS instrument planned for the EOS-CHEM platform (launch in 2002). Pointable infrared imaging
Fourier transform spectrometer with spectral coverage from 3.2 to 15.4 micrometers at a spectral
resolution of 0.025 wavenumber in limb-scanning mode and 0.1 wavenumber in down-looking modes
(nadir to 45 degrees off nadir). In down- looking modes, spatial resolution is 50 x 5 km or 5 x
0.5 km, In limb mode, vertical resolution is 2.3 km, with coverage from 0 to 33 km altitude.
- TES Project
- Beer, R., Remote sensing by Fourier transform spectroscopy, Wiley, New York, 153 pp.,
- Glavich, T.A., and R. Beer, Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System,
in Infrared Technology XVII, 1540: 148-159, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers,
Bellingham, WA, 1991.
TIMS: Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner
A NASA aircraft instrument with 6 channels covering the 8-12 micrometer wavelength range, first
flown in 1981. The digitized field of view contains 638 pixels with a total field of view of 76.5
degrees. Ground resolution from a 3000 m altitude is 7.6 m. The instrument has its own blackbody
- TIMS and ASTER EOS Volcanology
- Kahle, A.B., M.J. Abrams, E.A. Abbott, P.J. Mouginis-Mark, and V.J. Realmuto, Remote sensing
of Mauna Loa, in: J.M. Rhodes and J.P. Lockwood (editors) Mauna Loa Revealed: Structure,
Composition, History, and Hazards, AGU Geophysical Monograph, 92: 145-170, 1995.
- Pieri, D.C., A.P. Khrenov, T.P. Miller, S.E. Zharinov, V. Realmuto, M. Abrams, L.S. Glaze,
A.B. Kahle, V. Drozhnin, V. Dvigalo, V. Kirianov, E. Abbott, and S. Chernobieff, Joint effort
results in first TIMS survey of Kamchatka volcanoes, Eos Trans. AGU, 78: 125 and 128, 1997.
- Realmuto, V.J., A.B. Kahle, E.A. Abbott, and D.C. Pieri, Multispectral thermal infrared
mapping of the October 1, 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Bull. Volcanol.,
55: 33-44, 1992.
- Realmuto, V.J., M.J. Abrams, M. F. Buongiorno, and D.C. Pieri, The use of multispectral
thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from
Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986, Jour. Geophys. Res., 99:481-488, 1994.
- Realmuto, V.J., A.J. Sutton and T. Elias, Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of sulfur
dioxide plumes - a case study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, Jour. Geophys.
Res., 102: 15057-15072, 1997.
TOMS: Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
A NASA instrument which has flown on the NIMBUS-7 platform (operating 1978-1993), the Russian
Meteor-3 satellite (1991-1994), Japanese ADEOS satellite (1996-1997), and is currently flying on
its own satellite platform: Earth Probe TOMS (1996-to present). The TOMS instruments are
monochromators with approximately 1 nm bandpass channels at six ultraviolet wavelengths. Spatial
resolution of Earth Probe TOMS is 39 x 39 km at nadir. This instrument is used to measure total
column amounts of ozone by measuring the backscattered ultraviolet sunlight and direct irradiance.
Two channels are sensitive to SO2 absorption, allowing retrievals of SO2 column abundance. The
column abundance of volcanic ash can also be retrieved.
- TOMS Volcanic SO2 and Ash
- TOMS Project
- Bluth, G.J.S., S.D. Doiron, C.C. Schnetzler, A.J. Krueger, and L.S. Walter, Global tracking of
the SO2 clouds from the June, 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19: 151-154,
- Bluth, G.J.S., W.I. Rose, I.E. Sprod and A.J. Krueger, Stratospheric loading from explosive
volcanic eruptions. Jour. Geology, 105: 671-683, 1997.
- Krotkov, N.A., A.J. Krueger, and P.K. Bhartia, Ultraviolet optical model of volcanic clouds
for remote sensing of ash and sulfur dioxide. Jour. Geophys. Res., 102: 21891-21904, 1997.
- Krueger, A.J., Sighting of El Chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 total ozone
mapping spectrometer, Science, 220: 1377-1379, 1983.
- Krueger, A.J., L.S. Walter, C.C. Schnetzler, and S.D. Doiron, TOMS measurement of the sulfur
dioxide emitted during the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruptions, Jour. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 41:
- Krueger, A.J., L.S. Walter, P.K. Bhartia, C.C. Schnetzler, N.A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, and G.J.S.
Bluth, Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)
Instruments. Jour. Geophys. Res., 100: 14057-14076, 1995.
TOPSAR: Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar
A NASA aircraft interferometric radar sensor (C-band, 5.3 cm wavelength, VV polarization).
Resolution of digital elevation models produced from TOPSAR is approximately 10 m horizontal, 2 m
- TOPSAR description
- TOPSAR Images
- Evans, D.L., T.G. Farr, H.A. Zebker, J.J. van Zyl, and P.J. Mouginis-Mark, Radar
interferometry studies of the earth's topography, EOS Trans. AGU, 73: 553, 557-558, 1992.
- Mouginis- Mark, P.J., and H. Garbeil, Digital topography of volcanoes from radar
interferometry: An example from Mt. Vesuvius, Italy. Bull. Volcanol., 55: 566-570, 1993.
X-SAR: X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
A radar instrument flown with SIR-C on the Space Shuttle STS-59 in April, 1994, and on STS-68
in September-October, 1994. X-SAR operates at X-band (3.1 cm wavelength) with VV polarization. The
antenna is mechanically steerable through the range of incidence angles of SIR-C (18 - 58
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