University of Hawaii: EOS Volcanology, Thermal and Topographic Studies
PETER MOUGINIS-MARK (University of Hawaii)
LUKE FLYNN (University of Hawaii)
HAROLD GARBEIL (University of Hawaii)
ANDREW HARRIS (University of Hawaii)
SCOTT ROWLAND (University of Hawaii)
MARY MACKAY (University of Hawaii)
Sample Images Surface Change (62K image)
One of the new techniques being developed by the EOS Volcanology Team is the detection and
quantification of the changes in area of new lava flows using repeat-pass radar interferometry.
This technique has been demonstrated using data from the second
SIR-C flight in October, 1994. In the top panel, we see the area of interest just south of
Pu'u O'o cone in Hawaii. The active areas are labelled 1, 2, and 3. In the middle panels,
are field photos that we took during the period of radar observations, with the red arrows
correlating specific areas that were active with the radar images in the third row. These radar
images show the degree of correlation between successive observations taken one day apart. Pink
areas have zero correlation, meaning that a new lava flow has formed sometime over the last 24
hours. Yellow is higher correlation, associated with old flows. These data have been used by
Zebker et al. (1996) to estimate a volume of eruption of 2 cubic meters per second over the four
days of observations.
Mauna Kea Topography (133K image)
Data validation will be a very important aspect of the radar determination of topography.
Repeat-pass interferometry with the SIR-C L-band radar was
used over Hawaii to produce a digital elevation model. Here we see (at left) a shaded relief map
of the volcano Mauna Kea. While these data look quite good, on comparison with the USGS DEM (which
has 30 meter postings) there are several areas where the two data sets differ by more than 100
meters. These differences are believed to be due to atmospheric effects in the radar data. The EOS
IDS team is working to develop techiques to identify and reduce this type of error, because in
many parts of the world we will have to rely on the radar interferometry to produce the DEM.
SIR-C Hawaii (351K image)
In April 1994, the Space Shuttle Endeavor carried an imaging radar system called SIR-C / X-SAR. Several of the
EOS Volcanology IDS Team, including Pete Mouginis-Mark, Chuck Wood and Howard Zebker participated
in numerous volcanology experiments using with this radar. Here we see the combination of C-band
(5.6 cm) and L-band (24 cm) wavelength radar data for Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Particularly
interesting is the range of colors (produced by the different radar backscatter properties at
different wavelengths and polarizations) of the lava flows from Mauna Ulu and Pu'u O'o.
These flows are both a'a and pahoehoe, which have a rough and smooth texture, respectively.
The dark area south of Kilauea caldera is due to the ash deposits from the big explosive eruption
in 1790. This ash absorbs most of the radar energy.
SIR-C Pinatubo (423K image)
In April 1994, the Space Shuttle Endeavor carried an imaging radar system called SIR-C / X-SAR. Several members
of the EOS Volcanology IDS Team, including Pete Mouginis-Mark, Chuck Wood and Howard Zebker,
participated in numerous volcanology experiments using this radar. SIR-C/X-SAR imaged Pinatubo
volcano in the Philippines at different wavelengths and polarizations. Here the pyroclastic flows
are shown in red, to help distinguish them from the vegetated flanks of the volcano. This contrast
is due to the absorption of the short wavelength (C-band, 5.6 cm) radar data. The very dark areas
are river valleys buried by lahar deposits. One of the most interesting aspects of the SIR-C/X-SAR
mission will be to compare this view of Pinatubo with comparable data taken during the second
flight of the radar in August 1994. It is possible that new lahars will change the morphology of
the downslope areas. This may enable us to evaluate the volcanic hazards in the area.
Field spectrometer (284K image)
One of the main topics of research for the EOS Volcanology Team is the investigation of the
thermal properties of lava flows. Here we see two of our Team at the Phase 50 eruption of Pu'u
O'o volcano, Hawaii, in February, 1992. The white box on the tripod is a spectroradiometer,
which collects high precision radiance data over the wavelength range 0.4 to 3.0 micrometers.
These data enable us to determine the temperature and percent surface area of the lava flow, which
in turn lets us predict the type of thermal anomalies that will be observed by ASTER and MODIS on the EOS
platforms. We are also using this information to test thermal alarms, so that we can automatically
detect new eruptions anywhere around the world using MODIS data.
Landsat images of Hawaii (262K image)
Landsat data have been used to study the distribution of thermal anomalies on active lava flows
in Hawaii. Here we see data from July, 1991. In addition to surface activity, the thermal data
(Band 6) can be used to detect lava tubes. These data hint at the type of analysis that we will be
able to conduct with ASTER data from EOS.
Thermal Energy Map of a Lava Flow (39K image)
In order to investigate the magnitude of an eruption, the EOS Volcanology team has been
developing algorithms for the measurement of energy emitted from the surface of an active lava
flow. Here we see how the Landsat data for bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 (5 and 6 shown in the previous
image) can be processed to show the radiant flux density (in Watts per square meter) for the
entire lava flow. North is towards top of the image. Energy values range from less than 500 Watts
per square meter (in black) to more than 5,500 Watts/sq. meter (in brown). Maps such as these will
be made from ASTER and
MODIS data, and will enable us to rapidly evaluate the degree of vigor of an eruption, and
hence the potential hazards posed by this activity.
The Big Island of Hawaii: Landsat (287K)
Building databases against which we can compare future eruptions is an important part of the EOS
Volcanology project. Here we see a mosaic of Landsat Thematic Mapper images that have been merged
with a digital elevation model of Hawaii. Such information is also being used to test models of
the emplacement of lava flows, which relates to the study of volcanic hazards due to
TOPSAR Relief: Kilauea (383K image)
The NASA TOPSAR instrument is being heavily used by the
EOS Volcanology Team to collect high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of volcanoes. TOPSAR measures topography with 10 meter spatial resolution
and about 2 meter vertical accuracy. Here we see a TOPSAR
DEM of the East Rift Zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. This DEM has been processed in a computer so
that it is seen as a shaded relief map of the rift zone. Areas of recent activity, such as the
Pu'u O'o cone and the Kupaianaha lava shield are seen at the top right of this view.
Pre-launch EOS activities
Develop and test a thermal anomaly alarm algorithm for MODIS using existing
AVHRR datasets. Work on discrimination of volcanic hot spots from
forest fires and other hot spots.
Develop benchmark data sets for volcanoes around
the world to serve as reference material for subsequent eruptions, using
ERS-1, SIR-C /
X-SAR, Landsat, and SPOT. Develop algorithms for determining volcano
topography change from digital elevation models (DEMs) acquired at different times.
Develop algorithms for calculating volcano volume, slope, and rate of change of slope,
and test the software on existing DEMs.
Continue analysis of day and nighttime spectroradiometer data for Hawaiian lava flows.
EOS mission activities
Automatically detect thermal anomalies in the MODIS data stream.
Use topography and changes in topography to interpret eruption behavior, study volcanic processes, and monitor volcanic activity. DEMs will be
created by data from ASTER and
MISR, and existing DEMs from
TOPSAR and ERS-1 will be used as basline
Monitor the temperature and cooling history of active volcanic sites, calculate sub-pixel thermal distributions from
ASTER and MODIS data, and
estimate rates of cooling
Some recent related publications
Glaze, LS, L Wilson and PJ Mouginis-Mark (1999)
Volcanic eruption plume top topography and heights as determined from photoclinometric analysis of
satellite data, Jour. Geophys. Res., 104: 2989-3001.
Harris AJL, LP Flynn, DA Rothery, C Oppenheimer, and
SB Sherman (1999) Mass flux measurements at active lava lakes: Implications for magma recycling,
Jour. Geophys. Res., 104: 7117-7136.
Jonsson, S, H Zebker, P Cervelli, H Garbeil, P
Mouginis-Mark, and SK Rowland (1999) A shallow-dipping dike fed the 1995 flank eruption at
Fernandina Volcano, Galapagos Islands, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26: 1077-1080.
Denniss, AM, AJL Harris, DA Rothery, PW
Francis, and RW Carlton (1998) Satellite observations of the April 1993 eruption of Lascar
Volcano, Int. J. Remote Sens., 19: 801-821.
Harris AJL, LP Flynn, L Keszthelyi, PJ
Mouginis-Mark, SK Rowland, and JA Resing (1998) Calculation of lava effusion rates from Landsat TM
data, Bull. Volcanol., 60: 52-71.
Kaufman, YJ, CO Justice, LP Flynn, JD Kendall, EM
Prins, L Giglio, DE Ward, WP Menzel, AW Setzer (1998) Potential global fire monitoring from
EOS-MODIS, Jour. Geophys. Res., 103: 32215-32238.
MacKay, ME, SK Rowland, PJ Mouginis-Mark, and H
Garbeil (1998) Thick lava flows of Karisimbi Volcano, Rwanda: Insights from SIR-C interferometric
topography, Bull. Volcanol., 60: 239-251.
Harris, AJL, L Keszthelyi, LP Flynn, PJ
Mouginis-Mark, C Thornber, J Kauahikaua, D Sherrod, F Trusdell, MW Sawyer, et al. (1997)
Chronology of the episode 54 eruption at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, from GOES-9 satellite data,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 24: 3281-3284.
Harris, AJL, AL Butterworth, RW Carlton, I
Downey, P Miller, P Navarro, and DA Rothery (1997) Low-cost volcano surveillance from space: case
studies from Etna, Krafla, Cerro Negro, Fogo, Lascar and Erebus, Bull. Volcanol., 59:
Kaufman, YJ, AE Wald, LA Remer, BC Gao, RR Li,
and L Flynn (1997) The MODIS 2.1 um channel: Correlation with visible reflectance for use in
remote sensing of aerosol, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 35: 1286-1298.
MacKay, ME and PJ Mouginis-Mark (1997) The
effect of varying acquisition parameters on the interpretation of SIR-C radar data: The Virunga
Volcanic Chain, Remote Sens. Environ., 59: 321-336.
Francis PW, G Wadge, and PJ Mouginis-Mark
(1996) Satellite monitoring of volcanoes, In: Monitoring and Mitigation of Volcano Hazards, R
Tilling and R Scarpa (editors) Springer-Verlag Press, N.Y., pp. 257-298
Mouginis-Mark, PJ, SK Rowland and H Garbeil
(1996) Slopes of western Galapagos volcanoes from airborne interferometric radar, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 23: 3767-3770
Rowland, SK (1996) Slopes, lava flow volumes,
and vent distributions on Volcan Fernandina, Galapagos Islands, Jour. Geophys. Res., 101:
Zebker, HA, P Rosen, S Hensley, and PJ Mouginis-Mark
(1996) Analysis of active lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, using SIR-C radar
correlation-measurements, Geology, 24: 495-498.
Evans, DL, J Apel, R Arvidson, R Binschadler, F
Carsey, J Dozier, K Jezek, E Kasischke, F Li, J Melack, B Minster, P Mouginis-Mark, and J van Zyl
(1995) Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar: Current status and future directions, NASA Tech. Memo
Flynn, LP, and PJ Mouginis-Mark (1995) A comparison of
the thermal characteristics of active lava flows and forest fires, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22:
Jurado-Chichay, Z, and SK Rowland (1995) Channel
overflows of the Pohue Bay flow, Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Examples of the contrast between surface and
interior lava, Bull. Volcanol., 57: 117-126.