NICKOLAY KROTKOV (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)
STEVE SCHAEFER (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)
GREGG BLUTH (Michigan Technological University)
Geochemist; PhD 1990 Pennsylvania State University; Associate Professor at Michigan
Tech. Univ., 1994-present. Global and long-term trends in volcanic outgassing, ash/gas
interactions, trajectory models of drifting plumes.
Sample Image TOMS SO2 map for Mt. Spurr (114K image)
The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Nimbus 7
recorded the dispersal of the Mt. Spurr plume by mapping the sulfur dioxide released by the
eruption. This image shows the plume the day after an eruption on August 19, 1992.
Pre-launch EOS activities
Continue improving the algorithm for TOMS retrievals of SO2.
Continue analyzing TOMS SO2 maps of volcanic eruptions.
Study the effect of variations of the ultraviolet-wavelength band positions for improving SO2 measurements.
Compare SO2 measurements made by TOMS with those of other ground-based, airborne, or satellite
remote-sensing instruments (such as MLS).
EOS mission activities
Detect SO2 anomalies in the TOMS
datastream and produce SO2 maps from TOMS data.
Understand the accuracy differences, limitations, and strengths of ultraviolet remote-sensing
measurements of SO2, as opposed to millimeter and infrared measurements.
Some recent related publications
Krotkov, NA, O Torres, C Seftor, AJ Krueger, W Rose, A
Kostinski, G Bluth, D Schneider, and SJ Schaefer (1999) Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ash
retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26: 455-458.
Krueger, AJ, SJ Schaefer, N Krotkov, G Bluth, and S
Barker (1999, in review) Ultraviolet remote sensing of volcanic emissions, AGU Monograph on Remote
Sensing of Active Volcanism.
Schneider, DJ, WI Rose, LR Coke, GJS Bluth, IE Sprod,
and AJ Krueger (1999) Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with
TOMS and AVHRR, Jour. Geophys. Res., 104: 4037-4050.
Kaye, JA, RD McPeters, JR Herman, PK Bhartia, and AJ
Krueger (1998) New TOMS instrument measures ozone and aerosols, Eos Trans. AGU, 79: 57, 63.
Bluth, GJS, WI Rose, IE Sprod and AJ Krueger (1997)
Stratospheric loading from explosive volcanic eruptions. Jour. Geology, 105: 671-683.
Gurevich, GS and AJ Krueger (1997) Optimization of
TOMS wavelength channels for ozone and sulfur dioxide retrievals, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17:
Krotkov, NA, AJ Krueger, and PK Bhartia (1997)
Ultraviolet optical model of volcanic clouds for remote sensing of ash and sulfur dioxide. Jour.
Geophys. Res., 102: 21891-21904.
Schaefer, SJ, JB Kerr, MM Millan, VJ Realmuto, AJ
Krueger, NA Krotkov, C Seftor, and IE Sprod (1997) Geophysicists unite to validate volcanic SO2
measurements, Eos Trans. AGU, 78: 217 and 223.
Schnetzler, CC, GJS Bluth, AJ Krueger, and LS Walter
(1997) A proposed volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI), Jour. Geophys. Res., 102: 20087-20092.
Seftor, CJ, NC Hsu, JR Herman, PK Bhartia, O Torres,
WI Rose, DJ Schneider, and N Krotkov (1997) Detection of volcanic ash clouds from Nimbus-7/TOMS
reflectivity data, Jour. Geophys. Res., 102: 16749-16759.
Krueger, AJ, CC Schnetzler, and LS Walter (1996) The
December 1981 eruption of Nyamuragira Volcano (Zaire) and the origin of the "mystery
cloud" of early 1982. Jour. Geophys. Res., 101: 15191-15196.
Pyle, DM, PD Beattie, and GJS Bluth (1996) Sulfur
emissions to the stratosphere from explosive volcanic eruptions, Bull. Volcanol., 57:
Bluth, GJS, CJ Scott, IE Sprod, CC Schnetzler, AJ
Krueger, and LS Walter (1995) Explosive SO2 emissions from the 1992 eruptions of Mount Spurr,
Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bulletin 2139: 37-45.
Krueger, AJ (1995) UV remote sensing of the
Earth's atmosphere, in Diagnostic Tools in Atmospheric Physics, Proc. International School of
Physics, Enrico Fermi, 22 June - 2 July, 1993, IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp. 155-181.
Krueger, AJ, LS Walter, PK Bhartia, CC Schnetzler, NA
Krotkov, I Sprod, and GJS Bluth (1995) Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the Total Ozone
Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Instruments. Jour. Geophys. Res., 100: 14057 - 14076.
Rose, WI, DJ Delene, DJ Schneider, GJS Bluth, AJ
Krueger, I Sprod, C McKee, H Davies and GGJ Ernst (1995) Ice in the 1994 Rabaul Eruption Cloud:
Implications for volcano hazard and atmospheric effects, Nature, 375: 477-479.
Schnetzler, CC, AJ Krueger, GS Bluth, IE Sprod, and LS
Walter (1995) Comment on the paper "The atmospheric SO2 budget for Pinatubo derived from
NOAA-11 SBUV/2 spectral data" by RD McPeters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22: 315-316.